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UN Secretary-General António Guterres, says “tourism touches almost every part of our economies and societies enabling the historically-marginalised and those at risk of being left behind, to benefit from development.”

Guterres said in his message to mark World Tourism Day, globally observed on September 27 to raise awareness about covering the social, cultural, political, and economic contribution of tourism towards gaining the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism could result in more than US$ 4-trillion loss to the global economy, according to a recent report from the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).

Highlighting the fact that in the first months of this year, “international tourist arrivals decreased by a staggering 95 per cent in parts of the world”.

Guterres said that tourism continued to suffer enormously due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

“This is a major shock for developed economies, but for developing countries, it is an emergency,’’ he added.

“Climate change is also severely affecting many major tourist destinations, particularly Small Island Developing States”, his message added. “There, tourism accounts for nearly 30 per cent of all economic activity.”

Acknowledging that many millions of livelihoods are in jeopardy, Guterres said that now it is “time to rethink, transform, and safely restart tourism”.

“With the right safeguards in place, the tourism sector can provide decent jobs, helping to build resilient, sustainable, gender-equal, inclusive economies and societies that work for everyone,” he added.

According to the United Nations specialised agency responsible and sustainable tourism (UNWTO), tourism is a recognised pillar of most the SGDs, particularly Goals 1 (poverty-elimination), 5 (gender equality), 8 (decent work and economic growth) and 10 (to reduce inequalities).

Guterres went on to call for targeted action and investment, towards green and sustainable tourism, “with high emitting sectors, including air and sea transport and hospitality, moving towards carbon neutrality”.

Saying that “everybody should have a say in how tourism shapes the future of our societies,” the UN chief concluded that “only through inclusive decision-making can we ensure inclusive, sustainable growth, deliver on the promise of the SDGs, and transform tourism to fulfil its potential”.

The sector could then become “an engine for prosperity, a vehicle for integration, a means to protect our planet and biodiversity, and an agent of cultural understanding between peoples,” Guterres said. 
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Dallas, a rescue Dogo Italiano from RnR charity who was very stiff

Aquapaws is Cyprus’ very first Canine Hydrotherapy centre. ALIX NORMAN finds out why dogs actually love this treatment

“We swam a Labrador,” Gaynor recalls. “He would only get in the water if he had three tennis balls in his mouth. I don’t know how he got them in there, but he did! And when he was all better, his owner continued to bring him every week, because he loved the whole experience so much!”

Gaynor is talking about hydrotherapy – but for dogs! Water therapy has been around for thousands of years: Hippocrates prescribed bathing in spring water for sickness; the ancient Chinese recommended hot springs for a host of maladies; and the Romans were hugely into their thermae (think the baths of Bath) as a health-giving treatment. Today, the practice has been revived, and hydrotherapy is seen as a popular post-op recovery practice around the world. But hydrotherapy for dogs is a little newer…

Similar to human hydrotherapy, the canine version relies on non-weight bearing treatments to support the body, allow the cardiovascular system to properly aid circulation, and energise the whole system. Used to treat a host of canine conditions, it’s becoming ever more popular worldwide. And Gaynor and Chris Warriner were not only pioneers of canine hydrotherapy in Britain, they’ve now launched Cyprus’ very first canine hydrotherapy centre: Aquapaws!

“Aquapaws is Cyprus’ first and only Canine Hydrotherapy Pool,” Gaynor explains. “It’s a service that’s long overdue on the island. Globally, veterinarians have been recommending this type of treatment for years for so many canine ailments: arthritis, pain relief, post-operative recovery, and general doggy fitness amongst others. And the results are astounding! When you see dogs who aren’t able to use their hind legs at all, who come in for their first session with their tail tucked under in pain and back legs dangling, and then – after a few treatments – they’re walking again, they’re happy and playful, it’s truly amazing! Such a reward!”

Gaynor and Chris, who are life-long dog lovers and bred Boxers in the UK, launched their canine hydrotherapy service in the Hampshire town of Barton-on-Sea in 2001. “Back then, it was a really pioneering concept,” she explains. “We were one of only a handful of centres in the country, and vets from the entire region would recommend our services. But we sold up and left all that behind when we moved to Cyprus in 2007, and instead launched something completely different: a parking service at Paphos airport! We just figured that with the weather here, and so many people having pools, canine hydrotherapy wouldn’t work on the island…”

A decade on, the couple realised they might be wrong. “Many local beaches won’t allow dogs, and people seem generally loath to have their dogs in their own pools for hygiene reasons,” she reveals. “So we thought perhaps we’d give canine hydrotherapy a try in Cyprus: we installed a professional indoor pool in the office compound of the parking area and imported all the specialised equipment we would need…”

The pool itself is roughly 8 by 4 feet, and dogs swim in place, attached to a safety harness and usually wearing a floatation device to ensure buoyancy. “The beauty of hydrotherapy,” she explains, “is that the dog is weightless. When they’re on the ground, their own weight pushes them down and that can be painful for a dog that’s hurt or disabled. But when they’re in the water, there’s no pressure on the joints, and they can experience the pain-free movement that allows them to heal.”

At Aquapaws, Gaynor and Chris treat roughly 10 privately-owned dogs a week, and offer deeply discounted sessions to various local charities such as PAWS. The first session is a free trial, and each subsequent session is charged at €15 or less, if owners block-book.

“Each session lasts between three and 15 minutes, depending on the ability and progress of the dog,” explains Gaynor. “And Chris goes in the pool with every dog to encourage them to move their legs – though most will instinctively swim once they’re in the water. But not all!” she laughs. “We had one lovely dog, a cross-breed, who was so lazy and laid back she’d just hang there in the water, doing nothing! It would make us giggle – she was clearly enjoying it, but we’d have to help her use her legs every time she came for a session!”

Working with dogs of all ages, sizes and pedigrees, the couple are dedicated to canine comfort, and will do whatever it takes to help their furry friends on the road to recovery. “We had a Pomeranian who was so tiny, says Gaynor, “that none of our flotation devices would fit. And so we thought long and hard, and rigged up a child’s armband to keep her buoyant throughout her sessions!

“On the other end of the spectrum,” she continues, “we’ve worked with great Great Danes, various German Shepherds – who often suffer from arthritis of the back legs or hip dysplasia, and can benefit hugely from hydrotherapy – and one huge Bernese Mountain Dog. Generally, Bernese are great in the water: they have a thick coat that repels water, and are good swimmers. But this one hated getting wet; he had a very literal hangdog expression on his face each time he came for a session. You could almost see him thinking ‘Oh no. Not this again!’ I think he was quite thankful when he got better and didn’t have to come anymore!”

Most dogs, however, love hydrotherapy, Gaynor reveals. “And not just because they can feel it’s helping them. Labradors in particular tend to be deliriously happy in the water, even when they have three tennis balls stuck in their mouth! But all dogs, whatever their age or breed, are meant to run and play and bound. When they’re in pain, they can’t do what they love the most. With hydrotherapy, we’re not just healing dogs,” she concludes. “We’re giving them back their happiness!”

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It’s a scenario that many of us are familiar with. No matter how much coffee you drink or how many motivational podcasts you blast through your headphones, you’re still yawning into the crook of your elbow all day and counting down the hours until bedtime.

Whether it’s the lack of sunlight, the looming Christmas deadlines or bone-chilling temperatures, the winter months can often leave many of us feeling plagued by fatigue, tortured by sub-quality sleep and running on empty.

It’s a major issue in the UK. Statistics show that one in five people feel unusually tired at any one time, and one in 10 have prolonged fatigue, according to the Royal College of Psychiatrists.

If you’re over-caffeinating to get through the day and feel groggy most mornings, it might be time to intervene with some self-help. We spoke to experts to find a few simple yet effective ways to beat the energy crisis and have a natural flow of get-up-and-go.

Put sleep on your plate

It’s no secret that sleep has a huge impact on energy levels during the day, and if you don’t get enough of it, you’re more likely to feel snoozy the next day.

For a great night’s kip, strive to eat a balanced diet that factors in the amino acid tryptophan, which nutritionist Rob Hobson explains is “used in the brain to synthesise the sleep hormone melatonin.”

Melatonin is a hormone made naturally by your body that signals that it’s time to hit the hay. “Tryptophan is found in foods such as turkey, soy, nuts, seeds, oily fish, beans and pulses,” explains Hobson, who is speaking on behalf of Healthspan (healthspan.co.uk).

Dr Meg Arroll, a leading psychologist specialising in behaviour and health change, also advises eating an evening meal that’s loaded with carbohydrates such as pasta or rice, as this helps with the uptake of tryptophan into the brain.

“Food provides us with energy but the quality of your diet alongside your pattern of eating are equally as important to maintain energy levels,” she adds.

We tend to eat more during winter and opt for hearty meals such as pies, stews, roast dinners and other winter warming comfort foods, but it’s important to still maintain a good, balanced diet. “Focus on eating regularly and making every mouthful count by choosing nutritious meals and snacks throughout the day,” says Arroll.

Get into the habit of trying something new every week

Routine can be a good thing, but repeating the same tasks over and over can mentally add to that sluggish ‘same-old’ feeling during the winter months.

“Just as eating a range of foods helps to support our physical and gut health, stimulating the mind with diverse mental ‘nourishment’ boosts vitality and energy,” says Arroll.

Whether it’s finding a new exercise class, indulging in a new creative hobby or taking in some live music, breaking your routine can help to make the days feel more fulfilling.

Trying something new doesn’t have to be expensive either. “You could even read a type of literature or material that you may not normally seek out,” suggests Arroll. “If you’re a romance fan, try a crime thriller. If you like to read the financial pages why not challenge your brain and reach for a sci-fi book?” Check out your local independent bookshop for inspiration.

Get moving

“During the winter months it can be harder to find the motivation to exercise, but maintaining a regular regime can make you feel more energetic, strengthen your immune system and improve your mood,” says Dr Arun Thiyagarajan, medical director at Bupa Health Clinics (bupa.co.uk).

Aside from keeping you in good shape, Thiyagarajan notes that a workout has mental benefits – releasing a potent mix of the feel-good chemicals, serotonin and dopamine, which can help you de-stress after a long day at work and ease symptoms of anxiety and depression.

“Just 30 minutes in the day could change your whole outlook on winter, even if it’s just a brisk walk,” he says.

Arroll reveals that almost half of all our daily actions are habitual – “in other words, we’re on autopilot 50% of our waking lives.”

She adds: “Our autopilots unconsciously use information from our surrounding to guide behaviour, so increase your chances of successful habit change by tweaking your environment.”

Want to stick to a routine? “Leave your trainers in plain sight to prompt that morning walk and put the healthy food at eye-level in the fridge, rather than tucked away in the chiller drawer. Little healthy tweaks like this really do go a long way,” she says.

Let there be light

Sunlight doesn’t just keep us warm – it also plays a huge role in keeping us healthy and energised. “In the brighter months, it works as a natural alarm clock, waking us up gradually and leaving us ready to face the day,” says Dr Luke Powles, associate clinical director for Bupa Health Clinics (bupa.com).

“As we approach winter though, we’ll often find ourselves getting up in the dark, making it harder to find that ‘get up and go’ feeling.

“In addition to the psychological affects of shorter days, sunlight also plays an important role in helping the body produce hormones called melatonin and serotonin.” The former is used to help regulate our sleep patterns and keep us feeling alert. Without it, we can find ourselves struggling to stay awake.

“Similarly, serotonin is used to help regulate our mood – in laymen’s terms it’s the happy hormone,” says Powles. “When we’re in short supply of serotonin, it’s more likely that we’ll feel gloomy or disinterested.”

While a sunny holiday might sound like a nice way to increase our exposure to sunlight, the reality is that it’s not always possible.”Thankfully there are other alternatives, and many of us will see some benefit just by taking a walk outside for as little as 20-30 minutes a day,” Powles says.

“Otherwise, you can also try using SAD lamps. These are plug-in, indoor lights which mimic the sun and are thought to boost levels of serotonin and melanin alike.”

Although evidence around light therapy is still not 100% conclusive, Powles says that it does look as though SAD lamps can deliver positive short-term effects. “This means it could be a helpful way to banish the winter blues until the days start getting longer.”

That being said, if you’ve got conditions with your skin or eyes that make you sensitive to light, it’s worth checking in with your GP before using them.

With a few healthy adjustments, winter doesn’t have to be all doom and gloom.


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Proxemics is the study of human use of space and the effects that population density has on behaviour, communication, and social interaction.[1]

Proxemics remains a hidden component of interpersonal communication that is uncovered through observation and strongly influenced by culture. [2]

Over the years, I have met with confident people who approached to know my kind of a person when it comes to relating with one another.

A reserved individual who sits back, observe and relate with people on a scale I call “relationship scale”, you probably might not have heard of such.

For instance, the mode of interactions with family, colleagues, clients (I’m an entrepreneur who bakes yummy pastries by the way), neighbours, friends, strangers etc differs irrespective of the age.

Self-esteem goes a long way in this journey of life. When one is so confident, he/she remains unshaken. One respects all and remains contented with whatever he/she has.

That brings me back to the main topic  “interpersonal distance”.

Interpersonal distance is relatively the distance(s) between people. It is sub-divided into four, namely: intimate space, personal space, social space and public space.

Intimate distance for embracing, touching or whispering.
Personal distance for interactions among good friends and family.
Social distance for interactions among acquaintances.
Public distance used for public speaking.

PS: Space is the distance surrounding a person.

Intimate distance (Personal space) Person distance
Social distance (Social space) Personal distance
Public distance (Public space)

Personal space is the distance from another person at which one feels comfortable when talking to or being next to that other person.

Tapping an individual either by shoulders or arms because you need to speak with/to him/her might be fine meanwhile it might be offensive to another individual (cultural differences).

Additional Text
Invasion on one’s personal space could be threatening and also cause stress.
The categories of interpersonal distances suggest ways for us to communicate and produce expectations of appropriate behavior.

Reference 
0. Proxemics". Dictionary.com. Retrieved November 14, 2015.
0. Hall, Edward T. (October 1963). "A System for the Notation of Proxemic Behavior". American Anthropologist. 65 (5): 1003–1026. doi:10.1525/aa.1963.65.5.02a00020.


By Bethie B. Babalola
3bzbabs@gmail.com
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Renaissance genius Leonardo da Vinci’s litany of exquisite but unfinished work shows he probably had an attention disorder common to modern society.

That is the view of psychiatry professor Marco Catani, who believes Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) explains both da Vinci’s chronic procrastination and his creative drive in the arts and sciences.


“I am confident ADHD is the most convincing and scientifically plausible hypothesis to explain Leonardo’s difficulty in finishing his works,” Catani, of King’s College in London, argued in a scientific paper published on Friday.

Even the Italian’s most famous work, the Mona Lisa portrait, was not completely finished.

Most commonly recognised in children, ADHD is now increasingly being diagnosed in adults, including people with successful careers. Symptoms include an inability to complete tasks, mind-wandering, and mental and physical restlessness.

Laying out his hypothesis in the scientific journal BRAIN, Catani said historical records show da Vinci’s struggles with sticking to tasks were pervasive from childhood.

Accounts from biographers and contemporaries show he was constantly on the go, Catani said, often jumping from task to task. And like many people with ADHD, da Vinci got very little sleep and often worked continuously night-and-day.

Catani, a specialist in ADHD, brain anatomy and Renaissance science, said his analysis found da Vinci spent “excessive time planning projects” but lacked perseverance.

“ADHD could explain aspects of Leonardo’s temperament and his strange mercurial genius,” he said.


Historical accounts, Catani added, also show Leonardo was left-handed and probably had two other characteristics of people with attention deficit disorder: dyslexia and a linguistic dominance in the right-hand side of his brain.

In a telephone interview, Catani lamented misconceptions that people with ADHD are generally disruptive children of low intelligence and “destined for a troubled life”.

He hoped his analysis of da Vinci would combat such stigma and help those affected.

“Leonardo considered himself as someone who had failed in life – which is incredible,” he said. “I hope (this case) shows that ADHD is not linked to low IQ or lack of creativity, but rather the difficulty of capitalising on natural talents.”
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Have you ever considered that the simplest positions could give you the best orgasms imaginable? Hard, fast, deep thrusts are great, but slow, deliberate movements can give even more heightened sensations during sex.


If you’re interested in experimenting with speed and depth and are what some people describe as a ”lazy lover”, here are some tried-and-true positions that can take your orgasms up a notch, and give the appearance of putting in work.

The flat iron

You get double the pleasures of doggy for about half the work. Flat on your belly, face down, hips slightly raised – think of it as a flipped missionary. The bonus of this position is it gives a more snug fit and a low, deliberate, thrusts heighten everything.


Magic Mountain

If you’re more into stimulation than penetration, your clitoris will love you and your partner for this one. It requires a little more effort because you have to support your body with your arms, but the payoff is worth it.

The cowboy

Yes, the gentleman can ride too. Flip the tables and let him straddle you. Closed legs will make the fit a little snugger. Modify this by rocking side to side slowly while he thrusts, or having him pin your hands above your head for a little bondage play, or some light choking to heighten the intensity.


The OM

This is cute and intimate. Remember to rock not thrust, and loosen the grip of your legs around his waist intermittently for a little more ”oomph”.

Spooning

This position is so versatile because you can gist while he thrusts or rocks gently. For deeper penetration, have him place a hand on your shoulder. Best part, cuddlers can comfortably drift off to la-la land after a satisfying orgasm.


The X-factor

The intensity of this position comes not only from the smugness crossing your legs create, but also from your partner having their feet firmly planted on the ground. This gives him more control of depth, angle, and intensity, allowing you to relax and focus on that orgasm.

Because a lot of women do not orgasm from penetration, these positions were picked because of the amount of clitoral stimulation they offer. Should a situation where the bumping and grinding still isn’t hitting the spot present itself, these positions also allow you reach down and give yourself a little rub to help the ‘Big O’ along with no awkwardness.
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Couples attend a mass wedding ceremony of the Unification Church at Cheongshim Peace World Centre in Gapyeong, South Korea on Monday

Twenty-five years after her parents were married, Iasmin Lumibao travelled from Macau to South Korea to follow in their footsteps and marry alongside thousands of others in a mass wedding that has come to exemplify the South Korea-based Unification Church.


On Monday, about 1,000 couples were married at a ceremony in Gapyeong, northeast of Seoul, while another 3,000 couples renewed vows. In all, 64 nationalities were represented.

Lumibao, 23, is a second-generation member of the movement, and said times have changed since her parents married at a mass ceremony in 1992.

From the early 1960s until he died in 2012, the church’s founder and self-declared messiah, Sun Myung Moon, played matchmaker, pairing couples who had never met and sometimes did not even speak the same language.

Lumibao’s parents, and those of her 22-year-old husband from New York, Denthew Learey, were among those who were complete strangers when Moon, who said he was chosen by Jesus Christ to establish an ideal world of peace and harmony, matched them up.

“It used to be that we get blessed (with) strangers but now it’s quite different because we get to make the decision by ourselves, we get to know the person and if we want to continue we would take the step and create the future together,” Lumibao said.

Learey’s parents are from Germany and Canada, and Moon paired them up using only their photographs. They met a few days before the mass wedding in 1992.


The second generation couple decided to get married in 2017 after they met at a church programme in Austria in 2014.

But they came to the decision by themselves, rather than having their parents or the church decide, which become more common for young people in the church after Moon died.

Critics have for years vilified the movement as a heretical and dangerous cult and questioned its murky finances and how it indoctrinates followers, known in derogatory terms as “Moonies”.

But Lumibao, who said she never considered finding a husband outside the church, said the new generations should continue the marriage traditions.

“I believe that the values and our movement are important. And I think our future generation should inherit that because it’s healthy for individuals, the family and the society,” she said.
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This is the incredibly touching moment two sisters with Alzheimer’s see each other for the first time in 15 years. Despite now struggling to communicate because of her condition, Ann Patrick was clearly delighted when she recognised her long-lost sister Marguerita Wilson. Now, with the help of Ann’s granddaughter, they are reunited! Their heartwarming reunion was filled with emotions as they both set eyes on each other and moved everyone to tears of joy. The meeting is very emotional, both ladies were delighter to see each other again, and everyone from family to the care home nurses were crying a few tears.


Ann’s granddaughter, met Margaret by chance when she went to the Alzheimer’s club where Louise works as a manager. She was taken aback to notice various similarities between her nan and Marguerita, including their peculiar look and accent. So, she decided to make some more enquiries about her background. Louise realized that Marguerita was Ann’s real sister and they had not seen each other for 15 years! As it was expected, Louise contacted Marguerita’s daughter and arranged a meeting between the two at Ann’s care home in Wiltshire!

Ann and Marguerita are two of five children born in Antwerp, Belgium, to an English mother and a Belgian father. Their mother Mildred left her unhappy marriage when Marguerita was just 16 and Ann was 8 years old. They then moved to England and lived there ever since! Even though both ladies are advanced in years and the life has given them different place and people to live with, they were fortunate enough to meet after a long period of time. Both of them have similar problem and Ann’s Alzheimer’s is more advanced than Margaret’s and she has difficulty communication with speech also. However, it’s really heartwarming to see that she clearly recognized her sister and burst into tears when she finally got to hug her again after 15 years.


Marguerita, whose condition is not as advanced as Anna’s, burst into tears when she finally got to hug her sister again. The two sisters had always been close but 15 years ago had drifted apart as they found it harder to visit each other. She was repeatedly stroking Marguerita’s face. They have since met up again and love seeing each other. It’s a truly wonderful story. We are so glad to see them together and may God bless them to live healthy and happy for many more years!

Source: Sisters With Alzheimer See Each Other For The First Time In 15 Years by Caters_News

Alzheimer’s is the most common cause of dementia, a general term for memory loss and other cognitive abilities serious enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer’s disease accounts for 60 percent to 80 percent of dementia cases. This disease is not a normal part of aging. The greatest known risk factor is increasing age, and the majority of people with Alzheimer’s are 65 and older. But Alzheimer’s is not just a disease of old age. Approximately 200,000 Americans under the age of 65 have younger-onset Alzheimer’s disease (also known as early-onset Alzheimer’s).


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Madagascar, also known as the “eighth continent”, boasts of rainforests, beaches, historic burial grounds and plants that are found nowhere else in the world.


Named after the island in the same place, the country located in East Africa is home to the fourth largest island in the world.

Since the arrival of humans on the island in 350 BC, the island has witnessed the stages of civilisation and different cultures.

One of these is the 17th-century burial rite known as Famadihana which literally translates to “turning of the bones”.

Famadihana involves the digging up a corpse to dance with it. The burial rite is done every seven years by the family of the dead.

The celebration kicks off with music trumpets and chants of joy. While this is being done, digging commences. An elder, preferably one from the family, takes up the duty of invoking the dead body to join the living. This act is important: it is the only chance of the dead to revisit the world and relive his activities which they sometimes invoke through black magic


The body is cleaned and wrapped in expensive clothing like silk before they are raised high by relatives to dance around with it. Women who are not able to give birth cut a patch of the cloth and place under their bed with hopes of blessings.

Relatives also avail the opportunity to tell the dead the happenings they have had since their departure. Natives claim that the dead respond in acknowledgement.

After this is done, the bodies are turned upside-down as a seal of their journey to the spirit. It is only after this is done that the body can finally go to its resting place.
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Dating back to the 15th Century, the traditional Bantu kingdom of Ankole in Uganda has always been peaceful despite maintaining a social caste system between the Bahima and the Bairu. Until its abolishment by President Milton Obote, they were ruled by a king called Mugabe or Omugabe. The Bahima are a pastoral people whose wealth is determined by the number of cattle they have acquired.


The Ankole people, often referred to as Banyankole (or Manakole), are found in Mbarara, Bushenyi, Ntungamo, Kiruhura, Ibanda, Isingiro and Ntungamo in western Uganda.

Before the abolishment of the kingdom, they had a unique marriage rite.

Like many African cultures, there were rituals and processes the Ankole people underwent.

Once a girl turned eight or nine, her aunt prepared her for marriage, teaching her lady-like behaviours.

She was placed on a fattening diet of beef, millet and milk because the people see a slim person as unattractive. She was also taught to avoid sexual relations before marriage, often threatened by death and ostracisation from the society.


Once a girl becomes of marriageable age, the groom-to-be present two to 10 cows, goats and beer. One of the customary practices to initiate her into the culture is done after 10 days. The practise involves lighting the kitchen by setting a fire in a ritual known as okukoza omumuriro.

Due to the high regard for virginity and abstinence from sexual activities before marriage, the bride is presumed to lack the knowledge of pleasing her husband. It was, therefore, the duty of the aunt to test her groom’s sexual ability by sleeping with him before she tests the girl’s virginity. This is her wedding gift to the bride.

For a long time, AIDS ravaged the community and efforts to educate them as well as other communities have been met with obstacles.